Overview:

These movements can be performed in either the lying or seated positions.

Overview:

There are two main diagonal patterns available on isokinetic machines. They mimic the proprioceptive neuromuscular patterns (PNF). The two movements are:

PNF 1: Extension / abduction / external rotation to flexion / adduction / internal rotation

PNF 2: Flexion / abduction / external rotation to extension / adduction / internal rotation

These movements can be performed in either the lying or seated positions.  

Overview:

These movements can be performed in either the standing or seated positions.

Overview:

There are currently no standard examination positions for flexion and extension of the shoulder. During the movements of the gleno-humeral joint there are always relative movements within the scapulo-thoracic junction. These are usually described as fitting a set of established normal patterns. These must be considered when testing the shoulder. When testing or exercising the shoulder it is vital that the subject has sufficient warm up before performing any movements.

 

These movements can be performed in either the lying, standing or seated positions.  

Overview:

In recent years the most popular isokinetic test in the shoulder has been internal/  externalrotation (with modified seated in the scapular plane being the most popular). The main reason this test has become so popular is the open chain nature of shoulder motions. Most movements around the shoulder in everyday life, and in fact sport, occur with the hand free in space (open chain). The position of the shoulder joint (humeral head in the glenoid fossa) is actually controlled by a small group of muscles know collectively as the rotator cuff. This group is referred to as a cuff as they make up a significant portion of the front of the shoulder joint capsule (anterior joint capsule or sulcus).