Overview:

Wrist movements do not originate from a single joint. The radius articulates with three of the carple bones (known collectively as the rdiocarple joint) which in turn articulate with each other and the next row of bones (known as the intercarple joints). This allows for radial and ulna deviation (as well as flexion / extension and the combination of all four motions circumduction).

These movements are normally performed in the seated position. Most movements around the wrist in everyday life, and in fact sport, occur with the hand free in space (open chain). The position of the wrist joint moves in space in relation to the elbow which makes the two joints co-dependant.

Overview:

Wrist movements do not originate from a single joint. The radius articulates with three of the carple bones (known collectively as the rdiocarple joint) which in turn articulate with each other and the next row of bones (known as the intercarple joints). This allows for flexion and extension (as well as radial and ulna deviation and the combination of all four motions circumduction).

These movements can be performed in either the standing, or seated (most popular) position. Most movements around the wrist in everyday life, and in fact sport, occur with the hand free in space (open chain). The position of the wrist joint moves in space in relation to the elbow which makes the two joints co-dependant. The action of flexion of the elbow also calls into play the wrist as stabilisation is required for the flexor muscles to function correctly.

Overview:

There are currently no standard examination positions for pronation and supination. During these movements the shoulder is difficult to fully stabilize without using 90 degrees of shoulder abduction and even then the subject can move the shoulder somewhat the elbow is usually flexed to 90 degrees during these tests (as described by Gallager et al 1997).

If isolated from the wrist and elbow the forearm has one degree of freedom. This is longitudinal through the two bones controlled by the superior and inferior raio/ulna joints. This motion allows radius to rotate moving the attached hand into the palm down (pronation) and palm up (supination positions.

These movements can be performed in either the lying, seated (most popular position), or standing positions. Most movements around the forearm in everyday life, and in fact sport, occur with the hand free in space (open chain) and with the elbow bent. 

Supination of the forearm has been extensively studied in patient populations with biceps tendon problems. Supination is often investigated at the same time as elbow flexion the two are co-dependant.