For Specific protocols please see the practical section/s. Here each movement at each joint has it's own specific protocols (towards the middle of the page after the set up section).
An initial warm up, including stretching and gentle cardiovascular work, should be performed for 15 minutes prior to the use of the isokinetic machine. The only exception to this is in the case of research which specifically targets sports which would not normally involve a warm up period.
In isokinetics (and isometric contractions) a MAP curve is produced whenever a subject pushes against the pad/attachment on the lever arm (no matter how hard). They represent the various force points the machine records, so if you test your subject's knee and they push 10Nm at the beginning of the range of motion, then a point will be placed on a graph at the relevant angle/time axis (see below).
In most modern systems based on either a resistance pad and a load sensor (where the position of the lever arm is adjustable like the Kin-Com AP) or where torque is derived from turning force at the actuator axis (like in the Cybex / CSMI Norm, Biodex system 4 pro, Isocom, BTE, Contrex and Isomed), the following is true:-
The order of joint forces describes the amount of force placed through the musculo-skeletal system during a type of exercise or test.
The higher the force the more likely the exercise will be painful and the higher the likelihood of injury during it.
Skeletal muscle fibers are not all the same.
Those containing high levels of myoglobin and oxygen storing proteins had a red appearance. Red muscle fibers tend to have more mitochondria and blood vessels than the white ones.
Those with a low content had a white appearance.
Modern isokinetics machines use several components to create isokinetic resistance.
Apart from the base of the machine and chair/bed to perform tests/exercises from the main component of the modern isokinetic machine is the dynamometer.